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By David K. Henderson

David Henderson and Terence Horgan set out a extensive new method of epistemology, which they see as a combined self-discipline, having either a priori and empirical components. They guard the jobs of a priori mirrored image and conceptual research in philosophy, yet their revisionary account of those philosophical equipment permits them a sophisticated yet crucial empirical measurement. They espouse a dual-perspective place which they name iceberg epistemology, respecting the $64000 transformations among epistemic strategies which are consciously obtainable and people who should not. Reflecting on epistemic justification, they introduce the thought of transglobal reliability because the mark of the cognitive methods which are appropriate for people. Which cognitive techniques those are is dependent upon contingent evidence approximately human cognitive capacities, and those can't be identified a priori.

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20 T H E E P I S T E M O L O G I C A L S P E C T RU M For our purposes in this chapter (and book), we need not ultimately repudiate rationalism, since it purports to characterize one kind of high-grade a priori justification—where reflection must conform to the classical conception as set out above, and the rationalist form of such reflection must involve grasping metaphysicalnecessitation relations that are not mere conceptually grounded necessary truths. Perhaps there are cases in which high-grade a priori justification can be had, and also cases in which the rationalist kind can be had.

It would not take one beyond the ‘what would count as’ sort of claim—or beyond the mirroring material-mode articulations of such claims. For example, by reflection, one supposedly could come to see that the idea of causation included the idea of spatio-temporal contiguity. This allowed one to see that those ideas were such that whatever pair of events satisfied the first would also satisfy the other. Whatever would count as the cause of a given event would need to be spatio-temporally contiguous with that event, or be connected to it by a chain of spatio-temporally contiguous events.

One’s intuitive judgments about such matters are defeasibly presumed to emanate fairly straightforwardly from one’s own conceptual/semantic competence. g. 20 The abductive reasoning in support of the hypothesis often will ultimately rest in part upon an available side-explanation concerning recalcitrant aspects of the data—for instance, why certain mistaken judgment-tendencies are present that go contrary to the philosophical hypothesis in question; and this explanation itself will often be an 19 We would maintain that evidentially important assumptions and information can be—and often are— accommodated implicitly in human belief-formation not only without becoming conscious, but without being explicitly represented at all during cognitive processing—not even unconsciously.

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