By Mary Ellen Morbeck, Alison Galloway, Adrienne Zihlman
This booklet is a stellar source, addressing what it capability to be a feminine in evolution. From it i've got received a extra enlightened standpoint of ways and why the feminine physique features - for instance: why girl primates (including human adult females) are likely to deposit additional fats and why women strengthen osteoporosis. The cross-cultural life-histories of girls mentioned within the Evolving lady are interesting and precious. Life-histories of non-human primates upload extra intensity to the textual content. it is a needs to learn for all girls and all scholars of evolution!
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Additional resources for The Evolving Female
9). Differences in the timing of appearances of various characters and their rates and durations of growth and development explain much of anatomical and physiological variation among species (Shea 1988, 1990, 1992; E. Watts 1990; Morbeck chap. 9; also see Gould 1977; McKinney 1988; McKinney and McNamara 1991; and for “scale” of evolution, Thomson 1992; also see Allen and Hoekstra 1992). , homeotic genes [De Robertis et al. 1990; Weiss 1990; Melton 1991]). The apparent importance of temporal changes in life-history features as a way to change species’ characters through time can be tested by studying timing mechanisms in modern taxa at the molecular (or genetic) level and their effects on body systems and whole-organism functions (Shea 1990).
6). Attainment of physiological reproductive ability marks the onset of adulthood. Both females and males must continue to survive and maintain biosocial health in order to mate successfully and, for females, to produce a viable infant. However, they differ in time allocation and energy expended in promoting successful mating (emphasized by males) as compared to biosocial investment in offspring survival (primarily by females). Males may contribute to offspring survival in a variety of direct or indirect ways, whereas females are challenged energetically by pregnancy, lactation, carrying, protecting, caretaking, and socializing infants.
3 In a natural setting, of course, these distinct hierarchies cannot be separated in organisms, populations, or species. Since reproductive and, to a lesser extent, survival characters are included, the two sets of functional layers match, in part, my own view of the life-history approach. In addition, the complementary hierarchies are linked primarily at the organismal level. But, Eldredge and others seem to overlook the complexity of the biological, social, and ecological factors that contribute to individual survival and reproduction.