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By Jürg Steiner

Deliberative democracy is now an influential method of the examine of democracy and political behaviour. Its key proposition is that, in politics, it's not in basic terms strength that counts, yet solid discussions and arguments too. This publication examines the interaction among the normative and empirical facets of the deliberative version of democracy. Jürg Steiner offers the most normative controversies within the literature on deliberation, together with self-interest, civility and truthfulness. He then summarizes the empirical literature on deliberation and proposes equipment through which the extent of deliberation might be measured instead of simply assumed. Steiner's empirical examine is predicated within the paintings of assorted examine teams, together with experiments with usual electorate within the deeply divided societies of Colombia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Belgium, in addition to Finland and the eu Union. Steiner attracts normative implications from a mix of either normative controversies and empirical findings

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Historically, the member states of the EU were often deeply divided by war; today also there are deep divisions among some of the member states, for example between Hungary and Slovakia on the status of Hungarians in Slovakia. To do experiments among ordinary EU citizens, our research team was invited to join the Europolis project and to code the discussions with our DQI. This project is based on the idea of Deliberative Polling developed by James S. Fishkin and Robert C. 35 They raise the questions: “But what if the level of deliberation could be raised, if not for the whole public, at least for a random sample thereof?

To make translation manageable, there were only two or three languages represented per group. One language was chosen to be audio-taped in the original voices, the other(s) only in translation. This method has the disadvantage that for the participants for whom only the translation is recorded, the coders cannot hear possible emotions in the original voices. To code and analyze all 25 groups for their discussions on both immigration and climate change will take a long time, with other publications to come.

These data indicate a strong norm among Swiss citizens to participate in referenda, thus they are under pressure to give socially desirable answers. I concluded from this study that surveys may easily exaggerate levels Jürg Steiner, “Interviewergebnisse und amtliche Angaben bei Abstimmungen,” Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 17 (1965), 234–44. 23 Citizen participation in deliberation 39 of political participation. This is probably true not only for participation in referenda but also for other forms of political participation.

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