By Thomas F. Lee
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Additional info for The Human Genome Project: Cracking the Genetic Code of Life
One of those poor, an exile from the continent, struck by the hardships suffered by the working class, was to write another book, quite different from Darwin's but equally powerful as a tool of social revolution. Karl Marx's Das Kapital was published in 1867. The transition occurring in the natural sciences as well as society amplified the effects of Darwin's radical departure from the comfortable past. Science was termed "natural philosophy" before 1850, and although widespread studies of nature had been carried on with increasing interest for many years, the world was generally considered as an expression of God's creative power, goodness, and continuing care.
Stated in modem terms he might have said that the fertilized egg contains a nucleus which is the product of the fusion of the male and female gamete nuclei. Within that nucleus are chromosomes which are made of a long strand of DNA. Some of this DNA acts as genes which contain a code that will direct the egg to divide and eventually form an entire organism, as in the case of the hen. The hen is a highly organized mass of cells, each of which contains the same DNA code which allows the hen to carry out its living functions such as feeding, movement, metabolism, and excretion, all of which operate to support a major function, that of reproduction.
The bloomfilled field had spread from displays growing in a cultivated garden in a nearby park. He gathered some, identifying it as Oenothera lamarckiana, a species named, ironically, after Jean Baptiste de Lamarck. Over a span of 20 years he raised over 50,000 plants from his original stock. Occasionally he recognized plants that were strikingly different from their parents. New traits in the flowers appeared suddenly, with no clue in their parentage as to where these traits could have arisen from.