By J.B. Ruhl, Steven E. Kraft, Dr. Christopher L. Lant
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Additional info for The Law and Policy of Ecosystem Services
Bolund and Hunhammar (1999) drive this point home in their description of ecosystem services used directly in urban ecosystem settings, which include such regulating services as air filtering, microclimate regulation, noise reduction, rainwater damage, and sewage treatment. Taking the holistic list Costanza et al. 5. From the perspective of formulating economic and regulatory policies for managing ecosystem services, this distinction between direct and indirect use will be of utmost importance, because it reflects the human perception of the service use values.
It behooves ecology as a scientific discipline, therefore, to study not only the ecology of ecosystem service use but also its economy. The Distinction between Direct and Indirect Use of Ecosystem Services Once the topic of ecosystem service use is opened up, further refinement reveals the complexity of the subject. For example, in one of the earliest works on the topic of ecosystem services, Walter Westman (1977) differentiated between ecosystem functions that lead to ecosystem structure, such as habitat and the species that occupy it, and ecosystem functions that lead to ecosystem dynamics, such as gas fixation and release.
1997) observe that “ecosystem services and functions do not necessarily show a oneto-one correspondence. In some cases a single ecosystem service is the product of two or more ecosystem functions whereas in other cases a single ecosystem function contributes to two or more ecosystem services” (254). There are, in Ruhl-01-Ch01 (13-35) 4/10/07 10:00 PM Page 33 Chapter 1. 2. Spatial and functional relationships among ecosystem types and the services they produce. Lakefront homeowners primarily utilize services provided by the lake, but these are dependent upon services provided by the upstream wetland and forest ecosystems.