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Additional info for The Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructivist and Contextual Nature of Science (Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Social Studies)

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If the s ystem could change its organisation solely as a function of its internal states, this change would be governed by a constant. True change has to be induced either through a program of change injected from the outside or through external chance interferences. cf. Ashby ( 1 962 ) . 42 . (p . ). A more extensive analysis is found in Toulmin ( 1 97 2) . Compare Campbell ( 1 974). 470 30 The M anufacture of Knowledge 43 . Toulmin seems to suggest that this is normally and ideally the case, although he points out that historical cases do not always follow the pattern he proposes.

The presence of a talkative and ignorant social scientist in small offices and cramped laboratories is somewhat different from that of an anthropologist living in a separate tent in the open " field " of a native gathering place. The anthropologist will train and eventually pay an informant, or associate with different groups and turn for help to whomever is most willing, or even disappear when it seems appropriate, leaving the lit­ tle obscurities for some later date . But the social scientist in the laboratory needs to keep track of the activities of one particular group.

1 0 From the Question Why to the Question How Methodological reorientations are usually accompanied by problem shifts and displacements of the goals of investigation. Having turned their back on the more frigid tools of social investigation in order to move toward a sensitive sociology, some microsociological approaches have also eschewed various established questions of the social sciences. On the most general level, they seem less interested in the question of "why", than in the less conspicuous notion of "how" .

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