By Joshua B. Gurtler, Michael P. Doyle, Jeffrey L. Kornacki
Low water job (aw) and dried meals equivalent to dried dairy and meat items, grain-based and dried ready-to-eat cereal items, powdered baby formulation, peanut and nut pastes, in addition to flours and foodstuff have more and more been linked to product recollects and foodborne outbreaks as a result of illness through pathogens equivalent to Salmonella spp. and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. specifically, fresh foodborne outbreaks and product remembers with regards to Salmonella-contaminated spices have raised the extent of public well-being trouble for spices as brokers of foodborne health problems. shortly, such a lot spices are grown open air the united states, in most cases in eight international locations: India, Indonesia, China, Brazil, Peru, Madagascar, Mexico and Vietnam. a lot of those international locations are under-developed and spices are harvested and saved with little heed to sanitation. The FDA has regulatory oversight of spices within the usa; although, the agency’s keep watch over is basically restricted to imposing regulatory compliance via sampling and checking out in basic terms after imported foodstuffs have crossed the U.S. border. regrettably, statistical sampling plans are inefficient instruments for making sure overall foodstuff protection. for this reason, the advance and use of decontamination remedies is vital.
This ebook offers an figuring out of the microbial demanding situations to the protection of low aw meals, and a old backdrop to the paradigm shift now highlighting low aw meals as automobiles for foodborne pathogens. up to date proof and figures of foodborne disease outbreaks and product remembers are incorporated. exact realization is given to the uncanny skill of Salmonella to persist less than dry stipulations in meals processing vegetation and meals. a piece is devoted in particular to processing plant investigations, supplying sensible methods to picking out resources of power bacterial lines within the business meals processing setting. Readers are guided via dry cleansing, rainy cleansing and choices to processing plant hygiene and sanitation. Separate chapters are dedicated to low aw meals commodities of curiosity together with spices, dried dairy-based items, low aw meat items, dried ready-to-eat cereal items, powdered baby formulation, nuts and nut pastes, flours and nutrients, chocolate and confectionary, dried teas and herbs, and puppy meals. The booklet presents regulatory checking out directions and suggestions in addition to assistance via methodological and sampling demanding situations to checking out spices and coffee aw meals for the presence of foodborne pathogens. Chapters additionally deal with decontamination methods for low aw meals, together with warmth, steam, irradiation, microwave, and replacement energy-based remedies.
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Additional info for The Microbiological Safety of Low Water Activity Foods and Spices
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2000), and nuts (Komitopoulou and Peñaloza 2009). Although not common, there have been outbreaks with Cronobacter spp. related to the consumption of infant formula (FAO/WHO Report 2004). But the question, “why specifically were Cronobacter spp. ” is one that is not so easily answered. Preliminary data suggest that the infectious dose of Cronobacter spp. is high (Pagotto et al. 2003), and it was not clear as to why Cronobacter should be more associated with infant formula than other genera of bacteria within the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Processing Practices to Reduce Pathogen Contamination in Low-Water Activity Foods Potential sources of pathogen contamination in low-water activity foods and ingredients are numerous and varied; hence, multiple processing practices specific for the product are usually necessary for reducing the risk of contamination. The Grocery Manufacturers Association (GMA) has developed guidelines to control Salmonella in processing facilities and enhance the microbial safety of low-water activity foods (GMA 2009).