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By Alnoor Dhanani

This paintings reconstructs the theories of topic and house of the "mutakallimun" of the tenth and eleventh centuries. It makes use of texts that have in simple terms turn into on hand lately. The paintings provides fabric which demanding situations prior figuring out of "kalam" atomism. specifically, it analyzes the concept that of atoms as a "space-occupying item" with no measurement but having value. It examines the style of the atom's profession of area, and discusses arguments for and opposed to unoccupied areas or the void. a close exam of the paradoxical nature of such an atom follows. The argument is made "discrete" instead of a "continuous" notion of house, subject, time, movement and geometry underlies "kalam" actual conception. during this recognize, the "kalam" atom is the same to the Epicurean minimum half.

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Additional resources for The Physical Theory of Kalam: Atoms, Space, and Void in Basrian Mu'Tazili Cosmology (Islamic Philosophy, Theology, & Science)

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Anawati in his Essai de Bibliographie Avicenniene, (Cairo,1950), 135-136 and under item 129 by Y. Mahdavi in his Fihrist-e musannafät-e Ibn-e Sinä, (Teheran, 1954). The incipit and excipit that are listed by Anawati and Mahdavi show that both printed texts are riddled with errors. ’ Cayna). ‘Abd al-Jabbär, in his commentary on the M aqäiät of al-Balkhl, men­ tions that “Those who call it fa d ä signify by fadä’ the same thing which we signify by m uhädhäh. 48 This request to Ibn SInâ reveals that the m utakallim ün used the terms jiha and hayyiz, while the M u’tazilis also used m uhädhäh for the space in which material objects are imbedded, or in other words, these terms were synonym ous w ith makän.

Ibrahim al-TarzI, (Kuwait 1972) X:494-495. ATOMS, SPACE, AND VOID 61 The Basrian Mu'tazill definition o f the atom After these preliminary remarks about the use of jaw har to denote the atom, we can now turn to Ibn Mattawayh’s definition of the atom: The true nature (haqlqa) of the atom (jawhar) is that it is that which, when it exists, occupies space (mä lahu hayyizuri). The object which oc­ cupies space (mutahayyiz) is characterized by an attribute (häl), by virtue of which, [1] it forms a larger unit (yataäzamu) by the addition of another [atom] to itself; or, [2] it fills (yashgalu) a portion (qadf) of space (makän)·, or, [3] it is that which measures space (mä yuqaddiru taqdira l-makäni)20 having occupied ( häza) this space; or, [4] it prevents another atom from being [in the space] where it is.

52 C. THE EXISTENCE OF VOID SPACE Two kinds of void or vacuum were distinguished in ancient and me­ dieval philosophy. The first are the intercosmic void spaces between the particles which constitute the cosmos and the second is the extracosmic void beyond the bounds of the finite universe. For the Greek Atomists, the question of extracosmic void did not arise for their uni­ verse was infinite containing infinite cosmoi. Rather, they were propo­ nents of intercosmic or interstitial voids between the atoms of the cos­ mos.

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