By P. G. de Gennes, J. Prost
This re-creation of the vintage textual content comprises the various advances in wisdom approximately liquid crystals that experience taken position seeing that its preliminary e-book in 1974. solely new chapters describe the kinds and homes of liquid crystals by way of either lately came across levels and present perception into the character of neighborhood order and isotropic-to-nematic transition. there's an intensive dialogue of the symmetrical, macroscopic, dynamic, and faulty homes of smectics and columnar stages, with emphasis on order-of-magnitude concerns, all illustrated with a number of descriptions of experimental preparations. the ultimate bankruptcy is dedicated to part transitions in smectics, together with the distinguished analogy among smectic A and superconductors. This new version's topicality and breadth of insurance will make sure that it continues to be an quintessential consultant for researchers and graduate scholars in mechanics and engineering, and in chemical, good country, and statistical physics.
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Additional info for The physics of liquid crystals
Each fundamental region in the ditranslational design, in Fig. e. at three different angles) and a glide–reflection axis passing through its boundaries. (In addition, the design has translational symmetries which may be used as generators). However, only a minimal set of three of these symmetries are required to generate the whole design. For example, applying either the three reflection axes surrounding the fundamental region or the two four-fold centres of rotation and a reflection axis (as shown in Fig.
For symmetry groups where design types (i), (ii) and (iii) are simply derived from consecutive applications of translation T2 to an associated monotranslational design, no further explanation is given. Illustrations of all six design types are given for symmetry group p1 but only a selection of examples are shown for subsequent symmetry groups. Any additional versions of design type (iii) are described for each symmetry group although the design types (iv) and (v) which may be derived from type (iii) (by an analogous method for monotranslational designs) are not.
Reference is also made to a glide–reflection G which is parallel to T1 and of a distance equal to half its length. Although, as described previously, symmetry groups p1 and p2 may be based on any form of parallelogram lattice, in this section their structures are restricted to rectangular ones. Alternative structures will be described in more detail in Chapter 5. Also, to avoid complication, when exchanging fundamental region edges for asymmetric ones, as described for the type (iii) monotranslational 50 Geometric symmetry in patterns and tilings GSP2 11/27/2000 1:24 PM Page 51 designs, it is assumed that the end points of the edges remain fixed.