By Gábor Hofer-Szabó

The typical reason precept says that each correlation is both as a result of an instantaneous causal influence linking the correlated entities, or is caused by means of a 3rd issue, a so-called universal reason. the primary is of centralimportance within the philosophy of technology, particularly in causal rationalization, causal modeling, and within the foundations of quantum physics.

Written for philosophersof technology, physicists, and statisticians, this e-book give a contribution to the talk over the validity of the typical reason precept, via proving effects that carry to the skin the character of clarification through universal explanations. It presents a technical and mathematically rigorous exam of the suggestion of universal reason, supplying an research not just by way of classical chance degree areas, that is tyical within the on hand literature, but additionally in quantum chance idea. The authors offer quite a few open difficulties to futher the talk and inspire destiny study during this box.

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That is to say: is pure nonatomicity necessary for common cause closedness? Tue next two propositions give an answer to these questions. 21). 16 Let (S,p) be a probability algebra with two distinct atoms. Then (S,p) is not common cause closed. Proof See the end of this chapter. 17 Assume that the probability algebra (S,p) has at most one atom. Then (S,p) is common cause closed. Proof See the end of this chapter. 18 The probability algebra (S,p) is common cause closed if and only if it contains at most one atom.

80) as desired. To prove (b) suppose P1(X) =J:. 81) P2(X) =J:. :S: Again by (4. 86) is as desired. 26 Let (S,p) be a probability algebra and suppose A,B E S are correlated events. Then the following inequalities hold. 88) follows directly from the definition of correlation. 70). 87), suppose, seeking a contradiction, that p(A U B) = 1. 70). 70). 23). Since there is exactly one atom in S (denote it by q), for all BES we have pz(B) i O if and only if q s; Band thenpz(B) = pz(q) = 1. Now let A,B ES be two correlated events [clearly p(A),p(B) i O].

26 Let (S,p) be a probability algebra and suppose A,B E S are correlated events. Then the following inequalities hold. 88) follows directly from the definition of correlation. 70). 87), suppose, seeking a contradiction, that p(A U B) = 1. 70). 70). 23). Since there is exactly one atom in S (denote it by q), for all BES we have pz(B) i O if and only if q s; Band thenpz(B) = pz(q) = 1. Now let A,B ES be two correlated events [clearly p(A),p(B) i O]. We need to find a common cause C E S for this pair of events.