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By Ian Shapiro

This e-book eliminates the flavor of ideology and makes a speciality of the particular workings of democracy in genuine lifestyles. the concept that democracy is just a process of tests and balances is easily built by way of the writer as he describes it as a approach 'to stay away from domination of 1 classification or region on others.'

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Seeks to establish that different elites make different decisions in American 2 See Laclau and Mouffe (1985), and Hayward (2000) for illustration and discussion of this view. 36 D E L I B E R AT I O N A G A I N S T D O M I N AT I O N ? cities, but it is scarcely the place one looks for a defense of Dahl’s democratic principles. And Dahl’s “behavioral” theory of power, like the critical and supplementary literatures it spawned, is exclusively concerned with how to define power and how to identify it empirically.

12 This subject is, of course, difficult to study empirically, because most of the world’s wealthy countries, with the resources for meaningful socioeconomic guarantees, are also democracies, and the failures of the communist systems arguably had at least as much to do with their economies as with their political systems. Yet one would scarcely want the Tocquevillian case to rest on the communist example, where civil and political freedoms were substantially less well respected than in democracies, and the level of social provision was generally low.

The Gutmann-Thompson model works only for those fundamentalists who also count themselves fallibilist democrats. That, I fear, is an empty class, destined to remain uninhabited. Gutmann and Thompson are plausibly skeptical of those, like Owen Fiss and Ronald Dworkin, who believe that courts are better suited to achieving principled resolution among contending moral perspectives in the public realm than are other political institutions. Neither a compelling theoretical argument nor any persuasive evidence has ever been adduced in support of this view.

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