By Robert Carachi, Jay L. Grosfeld, Amir F. Azmy
Starting with the clinical foundation of tumors, this ebook presents updated details on epidemiology, cytogenetics and molecular biology, ahead of taking a look at present remedies, integrating surgical procedure with radiation remedy and chemotherapy. The chapters are written through world-renowned overseas professionals on pediatric melanoma from significant baby melanoma teams within the united kingdom, Europe and the USA. very good full-color photos and unique line drawings illustrate all elements of handling youth tumors. New chapters of this second version give you the most modern advancements and techniques in pediatric surgical oncology.
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Extra resources for The Surgery of Childhood Tumors (2nd Edition)
The radiation being delivered to children as part of diagnostic imaging studies, particularly CT scans, is currently being closely scrutinized as its potential role in the subsequent development of cancer is becoming increasingly appreciated . It should be noted, however, that most of the cancers to which childhood irradiation makes a contribution will appear in adulthood, as radiation-induced cancer generally has a very long latency period . Non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet light and electromagnetic fields may also contribute to the development of cancer, although, again, the association of skin cancer with UV exposure, for example, is well known but typically results in a heightened incidence in adult years.
26 27 27 27 27 28 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction During normal development and renewal, cells evolve to perform highly specialized functions to meet the physiologic needs of the organism. Development and renewal involve tightly regulated processes that include continued cell proliferation, differentiation into specialized cell types, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). An intricate system of checks and balances ensures proper control over these physiologic processes.
Overall, and for cancers other than those of the brain and nervous system, mortality rates tended to be highest in developing countries, reflecting their generally lower survival rates. Mortality from cancers of the brain and nervous system showed a different pattern with low rates in developing countries outside the Americas and Western Asia; since survival is lower in these countries, the lower mortality must be a result of under-recording and lower incidence. 4 Estimated age-standardized mortality rates per million for cancer at age 0–14 years, 2002, by world region.