By Paul Rowlett
French is a syntactically fascinating language, with facets of its notice order and clause constitution triggering a number of vital advancements in syntactic concept. it is a concise and available advisor to the syntax of recent French, offering a transparent assessment of these features of the language which are of specific curiosity to linguists. A large number of issues are lined, together with the improvement and unfold of French; the evolution of its syntax; syntactic edition; lexical different types; noun, verb and adjective words; clause constitution; circulate; and contract. Drawing at the paintings of a variety of students, it highlights the $64000 function of French within the improvement of syntactic idea and indicates how French demanding situations a few basic assumptions approximately syntactic constitution. an attractive and in-depth advisor to all that's attention-grabbing approximately French, The Syntax of French may be helpful to scholars and students of syntactic thought and comparative linguistics.
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Additional resources for The Syntax of French (Cambridge Syntax Guides)
Of M. 3). If the raised dependant is no higher on the thematic hierarchy than any other realised dependant, raising creates a minimality violation along the lines of (25). In conclusion, P, S and O respect a thematic hierarchy: P>S>O. This suggests 11 See Keenan and Comrie (1977)’s ‘NP-accessibility hierarchy’ in the context of relativisation. The syntax of French 24 that they aren’t merely adjoined PPs, but that, rather, they occupy hierarchically distinguished thematic positions made available by assuming the kind of NP* structure in (23).
J. sends his books to M. ‘J. ’21 e. Jean dépend [de Marie]. J. depend of M. ’ f. Jean pense [à Marie]. J. thinks to M. ’ Dyadic verbs like those in (36b, c) have two è roles to assign, illustrated in (37): (37) a. èAgP = VP* b. èAgP = VP* ei ei Spec èAgN Spec èAgN ! 3 ! 3 Agent èAgE èPaP Agent èAgE èReP 3 3 Spec èPaN Spec èReN ! 2 ! 2 Patient èPaE V Recipient èReE V Typically, this results in a direct monotransitive structure like (36b), more rarely, an indirect monotransitive structure like (36c) (Van Peteghem 2006).
Middle voice is therefore appropriate where the Agent is irrelevant, for example, when describing the generic features of activities; it can’t be used in specific contexts, as shown in (64c): (64) a. L’apéritif se boit avant le repas en France. ’ b. *L’apéritif se boit avant le repas par les Français. the-aperitif self drinks before the meal by the French c. *Hier soir, l’apéritif s’est bu après le repas. 4 Impersonal verbs Impersonal verbs lack a thematic dependant realised as a subject. 4) as its grammatical subject, for example, weather verbs (65a), être ‘to be’ used to tell the time (65b), s’agir ‘to be a matter of’ (65c), falloir ‘to be necessary’ (65d) and the presentative y avoir (65e): (65) a.