By william zachariasen
This vintage through one of many nice figures in x-ray constitution research presents a lively mathematical remedy of its topic. Addresses such basics as crystal faces and edges, the lattice postulate, lattice rows and panes, in addition to aspect, translation,and area teams. 1945 variation.
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Extra resources for theory of x ray diffraction in crystals
Mixed crystals of two solid solutions ~ and 8 begin to form. 13. 14. Phase diagram with a peritectic point (P) Another type of limited solubility is observed when the difference between the melting temperatures of the components is very large. It may so happen that the temperature of the triple point of the two solid phases and the liquid is higher than the melting point of an easily melting component. 13) illustrates the distinction of this case from the previous one. We see that equilibrium is attained when one of the two solid phases has a concentration which is intermediate between the liquid and the other solid phase.
4. It can be related both to a melt or to a solution, for example, to a solution of rock salt (sodium chloride) in water. If the curve is plotted for a temperature lower than the melting temperature of the pure components, then their free energies are depicted by the points K and P. Component A is in equilibrium with the melt C, component P with the melt L. Now imagine, as in the previous section, that the temperature axis is perpendicular to the plane of the sheet. The points C and L in such a three-dimensional diagram wi11 generate certain curves, which are precisely the curves of the two-phase equilibrium.
There are some other reasons which make the term "component" not applicable to most macromolecules and to practically all synthetic polymers. In these cases solids consist of molecules differing in weight. A material can be characterized by a certain distribution in weights. No matter how narrow such a distribution is, we have, strictly speaking, a multicomponent system, because we can always add some more molecules of a certain length, thus changing the distribution in molecular weights. This circumstance can affect the thermodynamic behavior of such substances.