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By S. Donald Holdsworth, Ricardo Simpson

This is the second one version of Holdsworth and Simpson’s hugely useful paintings on a subject matter of becoming significance during this age of comfort meals. As ahead of, it discusses the actual and engineering points of the thermal processing of packaged meals, and examines the equipment that have been used to set up the time and temperature of procedures to sterilize or pasteurize the meals. even if, there's plenty of new fabric too. in contrast to different texts on thermal processing, which disguise very thoroughly the know-how of the topic, the original emphasis of this article is on processing engineering and its relation to the protection of processed meals products.

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17) 0 where V is the volume and dV is the volume element. 20) r 2 T (r, t) dr. 22) where Q is the amount of energy supplied during time t, c is the specific heat and T0 is the initial uniform temperature. 5. Summary of Basic Requirements The following points need to be considered when attempting to formulate a model to predict the temperature distribution in a packaged food product which is being heated and cooled: 1. e. does it have properties the same in all directions? If not, use k x , k y , k z .

3. Initial and Boundary Conditions Temperature representations are often expressed simply as T . However, a more formal method is to give the coordinates of space and time in brackets. Thus a simple one-dimensional temperature distribution would be represented as T (x, t) or T (r, t), two-dimensional distributions as T (x, y, t) and three-dimensional distributions as T (x, y, z, t). For center distributions, where x = y = z = r = 0, T (0, t) is used, and for conditions at time zero T (x, 0). Since it is usually obvious what is intended from the context of the equations, this practice is often dispensed with.

2001, 2003) Simpson et al. (2004) Sheen et al. (1993) Califarno and Zaritzky (1993) Thijssen et al. (1978), Thijssen and Kochen (1980) Ramaswamy et al. (1983) Lekwauwa and Hayakawa (1986) Hayakawa and Villalobos (1989) Smith et al. (1967) Wang et al. 5. Some conduction-heating models for predicting temperatures in arbitrary-shaped products & containers. 42 2. 2. Heat Transfer by Conduction 43 an equation for the cooling period with an initial temperature distribution, and substitute the temperature distribution at the end of heating in this equation.

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