By Yildiz Atasoy
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Additional info for Turkey, Islamists and Democracy: Transition and Globalisation in a Muslim State (Library of Modern Middle East Studies)
B y m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d h a d o n l y a 15 per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate i n the l a b o u r force. the b e g i n n i n g o f the 1930s there w e r e 2,000 [Tezel 1982: 374). C h r i s t i a n G r e e k s h e l d 50 p e r cent o f the c a p i t a l a n d m a d e up 60 per cent o f the support for tractor R a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n w a s also a n i m p o r t a n t element i n the e c o n o m i c l a b o u r force. F o r congress p a r t i c i p a n t s , n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the manufacturing- policy i n d u s t r y w a s c r u c i a l for n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c independence.
T h i s i n v o l v e d b r e a k i n g p r e - w a r c o l o n i a l arrangements whereby the U n i t e d the Soviets w h i l e k e e p i n g the straits open to Soviet warships. T u r k e y w a r n e d States supported the d e c o l o n i z a t i o n process p r e s c r i b e d i n the the U S a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that i f T u r k e y decided to o r g a n i z e a joint defence w i t h C h a r t e r ( B r o m l e y 1991). the Soviet U n i o n the provisions o f the M o n t r e u x C o n v e n t i o n o n m o r e restricted rights for warships w o u l d also be extended to U S warships.
It is measure taken b y K e m a l i s t nationalists i n a n effort to o r g a n i z e a n i n t e r n a l significant that between 1920 a n d 1930, 201 T u r k i s h joint-stock companies were market. and established, 66 o f w h i c h w e r e l a r g e l y financed by foreign c a p i t a l ( O k c u n 1971). strengthen the m a r k e t p o s i t i o n o f large agriculturalists a n d c o m m e r c i a l groups T h e s e companies were p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n textiles, food p r o d u c t i o n , electricity ( H e r s h l a g 1968: 45).