By Steven McDowell
Now, here is a whole consultant to creating the main of USB, together with specific assurance of USB hosts, units, bus interconnects, hubs and protocols. Co-authored via the bestselling writer of "RS-232 Made Easy", this publication is written in layman's phrases for each laptop consumer, and complete sufficient for and software program builders who want a readable spouse to the traditional files.
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Additional resources for USB Explained
This means that the USB must manage the bandwidth requirements of both low- and medium-speed devices. The USB manages the allocation of its available bandwidth on the bus in a couple of different ways. 5 Mbps. These different speeds are called signaling modes. The slower-speed devices can be constructed more easily and cheaply, since they depend less on electrical-noise shielding. Basically stated, the lower the speed supported on an electrical wire, the less expensive it will be. The low-speed signaling mode keeps the bus free for the high-speed mode, since token packets are sent to these devices less often (one-tenth as often, by definition).
If the client is involved in the transaction, such as when the host reads a device descriptor or asks for the device's vendor ID, then the client must provide any required buffering. If the USB driver does not own a pipe, then it can be owned by one or more client pieces. From the perspective of the USBD, a single client process owns the pipe. It would be completely acceptable for a group of clients to pool their resources to manage a single USB device. Such cooperating client processes must behave at all times as a single entity.
The physical medium is a 4-wired cable: there are 2 wires providing voltage to power bus-powered devices, and 2 wires for transmitting and receiving data. The cable is diagrammed in Figure 2-4. Figure 2-4. Basic Cable Layout The physical-bus topology is a tiered-star topology with the host computer at the top of the tier and a hub device at the center of each star. This is demonstrated back in Figure 2-3. The logical bus topology provides that the host has a direct path to each USB device; this is also demonstrated in Figure 2-3.