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By B. E. Warren

This rigorous graduate-level advent stresses sleek functions to nonstructural difficulties reminiscent of temperature vibration results, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, the constitution of amorphous fabrics, and the diffraction of x-rays in ideal crystals. correct difficulties at bankruptcy ends. Six Appendixes contain tables of values. Bibliographies. 146 illustrations.

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Adams and W. Lewis [109] to grow very large ice crystals. Nacken also developed a viable hydrothermal process for growing quartz crystals. His unpublished work was found in secret WW II German reports. E. C. Walker at Bell Laboratories [110] based their successful hydrothermal quartz growth technology on Nacken’s process. 8 (A) A drawing of Nacken’s apparatus illustrating the growth of a faceted crystal using a seeded cold “finger” inserted into the melt’s surface. (B) A schematic diagram of Kyropoulous’s experimental setup where, unlike Nacken, a cold rod is place in the melt surface without a seed.

It was discovered independently by LaBelle [147] who made a significant observation during his early attempts to pull sapphire fibers from a die placed in the melt surface. He noticed that the Chapter 1 • Crystal Growth through the Ages: A Historical Perspective 35 melt wet the die and instead of being the diameter of the capillary within the die was the shape of the outer rim of the die. This was recognized by Mlavsky [148] as being of significant benefit and thus began extensive work on the EFG method.

Petersberg began his extensive studies on shaping crystals during growth using wetted and nonwetted dies [143,144]. These dies have one or more capillaries or slots to transport melt from the crucible to the growth interface. The shape and height of the melt column is dependent on capillary properties such as surface tension, density, melt viscosity, impurities and wetting angle. Over many years, Stepanov’s group produced a wide variety of shaped crystals including single and multibore tubes, rectangular bars, sheets, discs, etc.

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