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By J. G. Brown

This publication is meant to supply a therapy of the creation, homes and purposes of X-rays appropriate for undergraduate classes in physics. it truly is was hoping that components of it, no less than, may be beneficial to scholars on different classes in physics, fabrics technology, metallurgy, chemistry, engineering, and so on. at numerous degrees. it's also was hoping that elements of it is going to function an advent to the topic of X-ray crystallography, and to this finish the therapy of X-ray diffraction has been designed to teach the relation among the straightforward technique and the extra subtle remedies. in the course of decades of educating this topic to measure, degree in expertise and better nationwide certificates scholars, i've been not able to discover a unmarried ebook which makes an attempt to hide the complete of this box. This loss of a remedy of X-rays and their functions in a single quantity has brought on me to try to fill the space and this current quantity is the end result. evidently in writing this sort of publication i've got talked about many latest books and that i recognize my indebtedness to the authors of the entire books which i've got used. i think that every one those books are incorporated within the re­ ferences on the ends of the chapters but when i've got passed over any, then my apologies are provided to the authors involved.

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The type of graph obtained when the pulse rate is plotted against the applied potential difference is shown in Fig. 3. This shows T GE IGER THRESHOLD I STARTING POTENTIAL I I I I I I I I I I I I I I BREAKDOWN POTENTIAL PLAHAU GEIGER-MULLER REG ION I I I APPLIED POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE FIG. 3. The Geiger counter that there is a range of values of potential difference for which the count rate is independent of the potential difference. This range defines the Geiger-Muller region and coincides with region V shown in Fig.

2. CALORIMETRIC METHODS The complete absorption of a beam of X-rays in a body is accompanied by a rise in temperature since the X-rays are converted into heat. It is necessary to ensure-by choosing a large enough bodythat all the energy is converted into heat, including all the secondary radiations produced by the X-ray beam such as electrons, scattered X-rays, fluorescent X-rays, etc. The thermal effects produced by X-rays are, however, rather small so that great care is necessary in such measurements and this renders them rather unsuitable for routine measurements.

The amount of ionisation produced is a measure of the intensity of the X-ray beam and there are various ways in which the actual measurement may be made. Consider the apparatus indicated in Fig. 1. It is observed that in such an apparatus no current flows unless the potential difference -II I I I B FIG. 1 between the electrodes is very large, in which case a spark passes. If, however, ions are present in the gas in the vessel, current flows at much lower potential differences. g. a single charged particle or one quantum of X-radiation.

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