By A.Y. Tamime
Yoghurt: technological know-how and expertise is a typical paintings in its box for either pros and people inquisitive about utilized study. simply because manufacture continues to be, primarily, a usual organic technique, it continues to be tough to manage the standard of the ultimate product. Such keep watch over is dependent upon a radical realizing of the character of yoghurt and either the biochemical adjustments and method applied sciences focused on creation. Yoghurt: technological know-how and expertise presents simply such an understanding.
Since the final variation, the has been remodeled by means of the advent of mild-tasting "bio-yoghurts", altering either client markets and production practices. This new version has been comprehensively revised to tackle board this and one other significant advancements within the industry.
Thus, this day, thousands of gallons of yoghurt are produced every year, but manufacture remains to be, in essence, a typical organic approach during which good fortune can by no means be taken without any consideration. it truly is this capricious nature of the fermentation that leaves the procedure vulnerable to edition. So, even though a few facets of creation of yoghurt became rather commonplace, there are such a lot of parts of capability difficulty.
This booklet deals initial information at the intricacies of creation and distribution of yoghurt with a purpose to reduce product failure.
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Additional info for Yoghurt: Science and Technology, Second Edition
A method of manufacturing yoghurt from recombined dairy ingredients has been reported by Gilles and Lawrence (1979, 1982); the suggested formula is: 25 kg AMF, 125 kg SMP, 10 kg buttermilk powder and 840 kg water. , 1994). , 1994/95), but the use of fresh buttermilk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF) or nanofiltration (NO) in low fat yoghurt production affected the consistency, flavour and aroma but not product stability (Reierstad, 1993). 4 Addition of whey powder and/or whey protein concentrates This product originates in the cheese industry, and its utilisation in the food and the dairy industry was reviewed by Zadow (1983, 1994a, b), Alais and Blanc (1975), Smith (1976), Robinson and Tamime (1978), IDF (1988b) and Sienkiewicz and Riedel (1990).
Two approaches can be considered: (i), an approximate formulation can be worked out by the Pearsons Square formula or, (ii), an algebraic method can be used to calculate exactly the quantities of fat and SNF that will be obtained from the various raw materials (Hyde and Rothwell, 1973). The former method of calculation is most satisfactory for small-scale yoghurt producers, but the algebraic method is usually recommended for large-scale manufacture, especially when considering the economics of the operation.
The amount of water removed from the milk ranges from 10 to 25%, equivalent to an increase in the TS of 2–4 g 100 g-1. However, Baltadzhieva et al. (1987) recommended VE of whole milk to 16–18 g TS 100 g-1 for the production of good quality yoghurt. Some other advantages claimed for the evaporation process are first, the removal of water from the milk takes place under vacuum which, in turn, aids the removal of entrapped air and hence improves the stability of the coagulum and reduces syneresis during storage (Gradhage and Thurell, 1978).