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Sample text

Therefore, there is a detailed understanding of the host and microbial factors that affect antibiotic-resistant probiotic infections, including the mechanisms underlying translocation, the survival of the probiotic cells and the infectivity of the probiotic cells, is necessary. Isolates of antibiotic-resistant probiotic infections should be sent to reference centers for molecular characterization and confirmation. The report of any incidences of antibiotic-resistant probiotic infection should be made mandatory.

This phenomenon results in inefficient antibiotic treatment. A higher dose of antibiotics, or multiple antibiotic treatments, is required for the complete eradication of infections caused by antibioticresistant probiotics that have translocated. Consequently, an increase in the length of the hospital stay, hospitalization costs and a rate of mortality and morbidity are often observed in these antibiotic-resistant infections compared to drug-susceptible illnesses. , 2003; Marteau, 2001) may be horizontally transferred to other pathogenic microorganisms present in the infected region.

2008). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) have been collaborating to establish standard procedures for the evaluation and labeling of probiotics in foods. “Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food” has been generated by joint working group of FAO and WHO. This report outlined the recommended criteria and methodology for the evaluation of probiotics and the identification of the data required to substantiate the health claims for food containing probiotics.

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