By Justin Snedegar
Justin Snedegar develops and defends contrastivism approximately purposes. this can be the view that normative purposes are essentially purposes for or opposed to activities or attitudes merely relative to units of choices. easily positioned, purposes are regularly purposes to do something instead of one other, rather than easily being purposes to do anything, complete cease. paintings on purposes has turn into significant to a number of parts of philosophy, but in addition to a number of exceptions, this view has now not been mentioned. Contrastive purposes makes the case that it is a mistake. Snedegar develops 3 varieties of arguments for contrastivism. First, contrastivism provides us the easiest account of our usual discourse approximately purposes. moment, contrastivism top is smart of frequent rules approximately what purposes are, together with the concept they desire the issues they're purposes for and the concept that they contain the promoting of yes forms of ambitions. 3rd, contrastivism has beautiful functions in several components of normative philosophy within which purposes are vital. those contain debates in normative ethics approximately no matter if higher than should be intransitive and debates in either epistemology and useful reasoning in regards to the rationality of withholding or postponing trust and intention. Read more...
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Extra info for Contrastive reasons
There is an intuitive difference between cases like the ones I appealed to—for example, ‘The fact that campus is twenty miles away is a reason to drive rather than Thanks to a referee for Oxford University Press for this objection. OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, //, SPi re as on c l ai m s bike—and examples like this. The most important difference is that in the cases I appealed to, the options were mutually exclusive, whereas in this case, they are not. If hiring Emmy and socializing with her were mutually exclusive, then this case would be like those I appealed to, and I would insist that, if the fact that she’s funny is a reason for socializing with her (which is incompatible with hiring her), it is a reason against hiring her (which is incompatible with socializing with her).
His protest certainly seems warranted. So intuitively, in this case, you have no reason to believe that Tom stole the book. The reason provided by your visual evidence is undercut. And, it seems, when a reason is undercut, it’s just not a reason anymore. But Schroeder argues that our intuitive judgment that there is no reason for you to believe that Tom stole the book in this case is mistaken. For consider the following variation: The Triplet Book Thief. You see Tom Grabit run out of the library, pull a book from under his coat, cackle gleefully, and then run away.
It’s possible to give a very plausible picture on which ‘ought’ is contrastive but reasons are not. Begin with a traditional non-contrastive picture of reasons, on which they are considerations that favor certain actions with a certain weight, some stronger or weightier than others. Collect all of the agent’s reasons and weigh them up (in some way). This will give us an overall ranking of all the possible options open to the agent. We can even divide these options up as finely as you want. gallons in.