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By Stefan Winkler

Visible caliber review is an interdisciplinary subject that hyperlinks image/video processing, psychology and body structure. Many engineers are accustomed to the image/video processing; transmission networks part of items yet no longer with the perceptual features bearing on caliber. electronic Video caliber first introduces the suggestions of human imaginative and prescient and visible caliber. in response to those, particular video caliber metrics are constructed and their layout is gifted. those metrics are then evaluated and utilized in a few purposes, together with image/video compression, transmission and watermarking.

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Winkler et al. (2001), Vision and video: Models and applications, in C. J. ), Vision Models and Applications to Image and Video Processing, chap. 10, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Copyright # 2001 Springer. ). namely intra-coded (I), forward predicted (P), and bidirectionally predicted (B) frames. Each frame is subdivided into slices, which are a collection of consecutive macroblocks. Each macroblock in turn contains four blocks of 8Â8 pixels each. The DCT is computed on these blocks, while motion estimation is performed on macroblocks.

When the losses affect syntactic information, not only the data relevant to the lost block are corrupted, but also any other data that depend on this syntactic information. For example, an MPEG macroblock that is damaged through the loss of packets corrupts all following macroblocks until an end of slice is encountered, where the decoder can resynchronize. This spatial loss propagation is due to the fact that the DC coefficient of a macroblock is differentially predicted between macroblocks and reset at the beginning of a slice.

3(c)). 2 Transmission Errors An important and often overlooked source of impairments is the transmission of the bitstream over a noisy channel. Digitally compressed video is typically transferred over a packet-switched network. The physical transport can take place over a wire or wireless, where some transport protocol such as ATM or TCP/IP ensures the transport of the bitstream. The bitstream is transported in packets whose headers contain sequencing and timing information. 4. 4 Illustration of a video transmission system.

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