By William B. White, David C. Culver
Encyclopedia of Caves is a self-contained, fantastically illustrated paintings devoted to caves and their special environments. It comprises greater than a hundred entire articles from prime students and explorers in 15 various nations. each one access is unique and scientifically sound, but obtainable for college students and non-scientists. This large-format reference is enchanced with 1000s of full-color photos, maps, and drawings from the authors' personal paintings, which offer detailed pictures of the underground surroundings. international in reach--authors are a world workforce of specialists masking caves from round the worldIncludes 24 new articles commissioned particularly for this second version Articles include broad bibliographies cross-referencing comparable essaysHundreds of colour pictures, maps, charts and illustrations of cave beneficial properties and biotaA-Z series and a entire index enable for simple place of issues thesaurus provides definitions of all key vocabulary goods
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Caves (Second Edition)
Pectencoronatae Sket seems to be an obligate anchihaline species (Fig. 1). Niphargids are a large group of essentially freshwater animals and only secondarily did they adapt to the brackish water; N. hebereri is very euryhaline and also in other respects a very tolerant species. connections. The Tethys Sea encircled the globe in the Mesozoic period, when the supercontinent Pangaea split into a northern Laurasia and southern Gondwanaland. It was only in the Tertiary when southern and northern continents came again so close to each other that they disconnected this circumtropical seaway; note that even the Mediterranean was completely dry for some period in the Miocene.
G. (1983). Ecology of cave arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology, 28, 365À389. Howarth, F. G. (1993). High-stress subterranean habitats and evolutionary change in cave-inhabiting arthropods. American Naturalist, 142, S65ÀS77. Medeiros, M. , Howarth, F. , & Gillespie, R. (2009). Evolution of cave living in Hawaiian Schrankia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with description of a remarkable new cave species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 156, 114À139. , Martin, J. , Medina, A. , & Izquierdo, I.
2002). The initial adaptive shift must have been from salty marine littoral habitats to freshwater terrestrial habitats, possibly along shorelines of coastal springs in young lava flows. Suitable freshwater shorelines are not well developed on Hawai‘i Island, but lava tubes would offer a vast new habitat. The complex three-dimensional system of anastomosing voids characteristic of young basaltic lava flows provides an immeasurably large habitat for cave animals. In contrast, L. hawaiiensis is restricted to a narrow band along the coast where it lives under rocks resting on soil.